Progesterone Essay Example


1.Background  

Name : Corpus Luteum Hormone, Hormone de Grossesse, Hormone du Corps Jaune, Hormone Lutéale, Hormone Progestative, Luteal Hormone, Luteohormone, Lutine, NSC-9704, Pregnancy Hormone, Pregnanedione, Prégnanedione, Progestational Hormone, Progesterona, Progestérone, Progesteronum, 4-Pregnene-3; 20-Dione. 

Molecular formula : C21H30O2

Progesterone (the hormone) : P4

Molecular weight : 314.5g/mol

Melt. Point : 126 C (259F)

Progesterone is a steroid hormone in mammals that is involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supporting gestation), and embryo-genesis.

Progesterone is a progestogen, which is a type of sex hormone. The key progestogen released in the ovaries is progesterone, which is produced primarily in the second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation and the development of a corpus luteum by the empty follicle.

Progesterone is a hormone that belongs to the steroid family. A steroid is an organic compound that is fat-soluble and belongs to the class of lipids. It has a molecular core of four fused rings totaling 17 carbon atoms and is classified as a lipid. Three carbon rings of six carbons and one carbon ring of five carbons fused together.

Progesterone is a hormone that is produced by the body naturally. It can also be created in a lab.

2.Major use and industrial importance 

How it work?

The hormone progesterone is produced by the ovaries. Progesterone levels that fluctuate may trigger irregular menstrual cycles and menopausal symptoms. Progesterone is also needed for the fertilized egg to implant in the uterus and for the pregnancy to continue.

Progesterone made in the lab is used to mimic the functions of progesterone produced by the ovaries.

Action 

Essential for the normal menstrual cycle

Supports gestation: essential for maintenance of pregnancy by suppressing menstruation 

Decreases the uterine contractility and prevents pre-term labor

Thickens cervical secretions, decreasing cervical penetration by sperms

Essential for embryo-genesis of human and other species  

During pregnancy, along with estrogen prepares breast for lactation 

Increases the luteinizing hormone pulse from pituitary 

They also found to have neuro-protective action 

Use 

For contraception - either alone or in combination with estrogen in oral contraceptives 

Hormonal replacement therapy - in combination with estrogen is postmenopausal women 

In threatened/ habitual abortion, luteal phase support to treat infertility and premature labor 

Secondary amenorrhea, uterine bleeding disorder 

Method of manufacturing 

Synthesized from stigmasterol or, better still, diosgenin in animal ovaries (extracted from Dioscorea mexicana, a Mexican yam). Acetolysis, chromic acid oxidation, and cleavage of the ketoester diacetate with boiling acetic acid to 16-dehydropregnenolone acetate, which then undergoes catalytic reduction to yield pregnenolone acetate, are all steps in the above synthesis. Progesterone is generated by saponification of the acetate ester to the 3beta-alcohol followed by Oppenauer oxidation.

Progesterone can be made using one of two methods:

*  selective hydrogenation of dehydropregnenolone acetate, 

*  stigmasterol conversion.

Side effects

When taken by mouth: The FDA-approved progesterone prescription drugs are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth with the advice and supervision of a healthcare professional.

When administered as a shot: When injected into the muscle with the guidance and treatment of a healthcare professional, progesterone pharmaceutical drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are LIKELY SAFE for most people.

When applied to the skin: When applied to the skin with the advice and treatment of a healthcare professional, progesterone prescription products approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are LIKELY SAFE for most people.

When used in the vagina: When used in the vagina with the advice and treatment of a healthcare provider, progesterone prescription products that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are LIKELY SAFE for most people.

۞Stomach upset, changes in appetite, weight gain, fluid retention and swelling (edema), weakness, acne, drowsiness or insomnia, allergic skin rashes, hives, fever, headache, depression, breast irritation or enlargement, premenstrual syndrome (PMS)-like symptoms, altered menstrual cycles, irregular bleeding, and other side effects are also possible with progesterone.

Interesting things about progesterone

The effects of progesterone can be felt in your entire body. This strong hormone is in control of a lot! Progesterone will make you feel better. Progesterone is a natural antidepressant that can reduce anxiety, improve mood swings, and even assist with postpartum depression.

Progesterone is also used as an anti-aging hormone.

Reference

- Progesterone - New World Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Www.newworldencyclopedia.org. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Progesterone

-  Henderson, V. W. (2018). Progesterone and human cognition.Climacteric,21(4), 333 340. https://doi.org/10.1080/13697137.2018.1476484

- Progesterone: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning. (2019). Webmd.com. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-760/progesterone

- Hormone Health Network. (2019, October 9). Progesterone | Hormone Health Network. Hormone.org. https://www.hormone.org/your-health-and-hormones/glands-and-hormones-a-to-z/hormones/progesterone

- National Center for Biotechnology Information (2021). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 5994, Progesterone. Retrieved March 7, 2021 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Progesterone.

- Prior, J. C. (2019). Progesterone Is Important for Transgender Women’s Therapy—Applying Evidence for the Benefits of Progesterone in Ciswomen. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 104(4), 1181–1186. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-01777

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