Structure and Function of Neurons

  • Category: Biology, Science,
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 306
  • Published: 31 March 2021
  • Copied: 193


There’s many different characteristics of neurons, however some things are the same in all types of neurons such as carrying messages throughout the body. Among other things, all neurons have dendrites that receive information from other neurons. Neurons possess the soma, also known as the cell body, maintains the cell and keeps the neuron functional. The next part of a neuron would be the axon, the axon transmits the neural signals. The final part of the neuron would be the terminal which is located at the end of the neuron and sends signals on to other neurons. 

Neurons start with the dendrites which are tiny protrusions that extend to receive the information sent from other neurons, process it and transmit this information to the cell body. At the end of these tiny protrusions are where the signals are transferred. Dendrites must be stimulated to provide an electrochemical charge to the cell body. Dendrites have branch-like extensions to increase the surface of connection. The next part of the neuron is the nucleus which is the brain of the neuron. Within the nucleus is where ribosomes and DNA are produced which is what codes our genetic information. DNA are theoretically the blueprints to direct activity. The nucleus is also responsible for regulating the processes in the cell. All neurons also have a cell body, also known as the soma, is a neuron core. The soma is what carries genetic information, maintains a neuron's structure and provides energy for activities. The soma contains the nucleus, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Somas are also responsible for all essential proteins of the neuron. The mitochondria of the cell body act as the powerhouse of the neuron. The last part of the neuron is the axon. An axon is a tail like structure that controls the signals sent to other neurons. Generally, there’s only one main axon to a neuron. An axon typically contains myelin which is an insulated fatty tissue that protects the axon.